Willem Stoop began investigating the advantages of introducing SRI into Mali and other West African countries in 1999 while working at West African Rice Development Association (now the African Rice Center). Although Norman Uphoff had discussions with World Vision/Mali and the government's Institute for Economic Research (IER) on setting up SRI trials in Mali in 2003, substantial progress with SRI began only in 2007 when Africare, an NGO working on agricultural and rural development, initiated SRI demonstration trials in the Timbuktu region. The experiments were managed by farmers in the Goundam district with technical assistance from Erika Styger, who learned about SRI while doing her PhD thesis research in Madagascar with CIIFAD.
During the 2007/2008 cropping season, Africare undertook a first demonstration of SRI in two villages. The yield increase using SRI was remarkable: 8.98 tons/hectare, 34% more than the best use of farmers’ rice planting methods (see report). The evaluation was expanded during the 2008/2009 season with support from the Better U Foundation. Average SRI yield of 53 farmers in 12 villages reached 9.1 t/ha. On average SRI yields were 66% higher compared to the control plots with 5.49 t/ha and 87% higher compared to the surrounding rice fields with 4.86 t/ha (see report). During 2010, participation of volunteer farmers in Africare's SRI projects increased to 270 farmers in 28 villages with an average yield of 7.71 t/ha compared to 4.48 t/ha in farmers’ usual practice fields (a 72% yield increase). An irrigation test showed that under SRI practices, water savings can be expected to be at least 32%.
Africare also began working to adapt SRI principles to wheat during 2009. The "System of Wheat Intensification" (SWI) showed potential for significantly increasing yields levels, by developing better direct-seeding techniques, reduce the spacing between plants, and by targeting the optimal planting time (see report).
During the 2009/2010 season, USAID’s Integrated Initiatives for Economic Growth in Mali (IICEM) project introduced SRI methods into irrigated areas of Gao, Mopti, and Timbuktu (not already reached by Africare) as well as rainfed rice systems in the Sikasso region, with consistent yield increases and reduction in chemical fertilizer use by farmers (see report). During May 2011, InterAction, a Washington D.C.-based alliance of NGOs, awarded Africare the Best Practice Award for Natural Resources Management and Adaptation to Climate Change for its SRI work in the Timbuktu Region. Also during 2011, Kokou Zotoglo, the rice value chain leader for USAID/West Africa’s Expanded Agribusiness and Trade Promotion (USAID E-ATP) program, and Djiguiba Koyaté, his counterpart at USAID/Mali’s Integrated Initiatives for Economic Growth in Mali (USAID IICEM), were given the “Tiwara” (“Lion of Work” in Bambara) award from government and civil society leaders in the Circle of San in the Ségou region for their work promoting SRI.
On November 14-18, 2011, a sub-regional SRI training workshop was organized by Africare Mali in Goundam (in Mali's Timbuktu Region) with participants from Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali. During 2012-2013, a project carried out by the local NGO 3A-Sahel in conjunction with SRI Global and SRI-Rice at Cornell allowed 70 farmers in 7 villages to realize increases of 4.3 to 8 tons per hectare in spite of Mali's civil war during that year. Two additional phases followed in 2013 and 2014 that allowed additional scaling up to new villages and continuing support for the original villages. The final report notes that average yield increase of 63.36% over the usual farmer practice; 40 farmers were intensively trained, 166 received some training, and 71 received only minimal technical support.
During July 2012, the National Center of Specialization for Rice (NCOS Mali) at the Institut d'Économie Rurale (IER) co-organized a West Africa SRI Workshop in Burkina Faso that attracted 60 participants from 13 West African countries. The 3-year project, Improving and Scaling Up the System of Rice Intensification in West Africa (SRI-WAAPP), that evolved from the 2012 workshop formally began in 2014. SRI-WAAPP is an initiative of the World-Bank-funded West Africa Agricultural Projection Program (WAAPP). As of 2016, There are 115 sites where farmers have been trained in SRI methods by the project. (See map at right for locations).
- SRI Training Sites Expanded Under SRI-WAAPP
[May 23, 2016] SRI continues to expand the areas of Mali where rice is cultivated, as can be seen in the SRI-WAAPP project site map above. The map, which is current as of 2016, shows 115 sites where farmers have received training in SRI since the project formally began in 2014. A recent article on the WAAPP website explains that farmers have adopted SRI in order to increase production, but have also used less seed. With traditional methods, farmers were planting 120 kg of seeds and receiving yields of 3-4 tonnes/ha, but with SRI, farmers have used only 15 kg of seeds and received 8-8.5 tons/ha. The increased production is also reducing the amount of rice that has to be imported into Mali.
- Continued Success for 3A-Sahel's SRI Project Near Douentza
[February 2015] Following on successful 2012 and 2013 SRI projects, a third renewal of the 3A-Sahel SRI project near Douentza, Mali, took place during 2014 and was concluded as of January 2015. The final phase of the SRI Global grant, which was funded by the Bridging Peace Foundation, included large-scale dissemination of SRI from May 2014 through January 2015 in the villages of Deri, Kokoro, Koundioume, Sobbo, N'Dempaba, Saréféré Mirgna, and Dounentza in the Djaptodj, and Douentza communes, in the zone of Douentza, Mali. These activities allowed rice farmers in the area to learn about and appreciate SRI and to achieve an average yield increase of 63.36% over the usual farmer practice. Some formal training was provided to 166 farmers, and 40 farmers growing rice on 10 hectares were intensely trained and supported by the technical staff. In addition, 71 farmers used SRI techniques to grow rice on 23.75 hectares, with only minimal technical support. See the final 2014-2015 summary project report or the full length French language report for more information. [Previous reports are also available on the first phase (2012-2013), which introduced SRI in ten villages in the region, and the second phase (2013-2014), which introduced SRI to six additional villages while scaling up SRI in seven other villages where it had already been introduced.]
- Mali Represented in SRI Events in Thailand
[November 10, 2014] Gaoussou Traoré (West Africa Agricultural Production Program, WAAPP), Minamba Bagayoko (WAAPP / Institute for Economic Research (IER)) and Ousmane Djire (Societe Cooperative Artisanale des Forgerons de l’Office du Niger) made presentations at the Workshop on Smallholder Crop Production Equipment for SRI, held November 1-3, 2014, at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in Pathumthani, Thailand. In addition to the equipment event, which was attended by 60 participants from 12 countries, they also participated in the Workshop on Building Alliances around SRI and Agro-Ecology (October 26-27, 2014) and the 4th International Rice Congress and Workshop (October 27-31, 2014), both of which were held in Bangkok, Thailand.
- Successful SRI Project in Douentza Winds Down
[March 2014] The 3A-Sahel SRI project near Douentza, Mali, reported on its introductory trials in the villages of Amba, Batouma, Kiro, N'dempaba, Deri, and Douentza during the first half of 2013, which were followed by scaling up dissemination of SRI from June through December 2013 in the villages of Boré, Falembougou, Manko, Kokoro, Saréféré Mirgna, Koundioume and Sobbo in the Dangol Boré, Djaptodj, and Douentza communes, all of which are located in the zone of Douentza, Mali. Overall yields using SRI techniques were 51% higher than yields obtained from the usual farmer practices in the area. A follow up project is under consideration. (See final 2013 project report).
- Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West Africa Project Begins Its First Phase
[January 2014] Improving and Scaling up the System of Rice Intensification in West Africa is in the 3-year first phase of a regional World Bank-financed project to increase rice productivity throughout a 13-country Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) area. The project, which includes Mali, is part of the larger West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP). The project is designed to increase rice yields by 30% in targeted areas in each of the participating countries by strengthening the human and institutional capacities, by focusing on innovation and development of SRI practices and technologies that are adapted to the local environment, and by facilitating knowledge exchange and meeting the demand for knowledge among the stakeholders associated with the rice value chain. The development and extension of technologies and methodologies for increasing the productivity for each crop or set of crops in the WAAPP is delegated to individual focal institutions across the region; the Government of Mali’s Institut d'Économie Rurale (IER) is the designated National Center of Specialization in Rice (CNS-Riz), and is responsible for the majority of the rice components of the WAAPP. As part of their mandate to improve rice productivity across the region, CNS-Riz has teamed up with Cornell University’s SRI-Rice to implement the regional project on Improving and Scaling up the System of Rice Intensification in West Africa.’ (See project website.)
- Project in Douentza Succeeds Despite the War in Mali
[April 2013] A project co-sponsored by SRI Global and SRI-Rice was carried out by the local NGO 3A-Sahel continued to operate successfully in Mali during 2012 despite occupation by the Islamic jihadists who swept down from the north. The introductory SRI trials from June through December 2012 in the villages of Boré, Falembougou, Manko, Kokoro, Saréféré Mirgna, Koundioume and Sobbo in the Dangol Boré and Djaptodji communes, in the zone of Douentza, Mali. SRI yields ranged from 6 to 11 tons per hectare, and controls from 2 to 6 tons. SRI yields were from 2 to 6 tons higher than controls. SRI-Rice helped design and analyze the data sheets for the project. Press reports of the project were reported in the Cornell Chronicle (January), PeriodiCALS magazine (March) and Farming Matters (March). (See also 2012 project report to SRI Global).
The 3A Sahel in Mali was continued during 2013, starting with some organizational meetings with the farmers (see photos at right). Building on the 2012 pilot project, which was successful in testing SRI with 70 farmers in 7 villages (despite being the middle of a war zone), 3A Sahel is working to expand use of SRI to all 254 rice farmers in these seven villages, and also to introduce SRI to 60 farmers in 6 new villages. While the 2012 project continued on despite its location in the middle of a war zone, the area is now free of control by the jihadists, who fled following intervention by French and government of Mali forces early in 2013. (See SRI Global Facebook page for more information).
1999-2012 -see Mali activity archives
- Guindo, Hamidou. 2015. Vulgarisation du Systeme de Riziculture Intensif (SRI) dans les Communes de Djaptodji et Douentza dan le Cercle de Douentza (Region Mo Pti) - Campagne Agricole 2014-2015. SRI-Rice website. March 2. (8p., 600KB pdf) [French language final report on an SRI project near Douentza, Mali. The project was a grant from SRI Global , Inc., which was granted the NGO 3A-Sahel with funding from the Bridging Peace Foundation.]
- Guindo, Hamidou. 2015. Final Report, Grant to 3A - Sahel from SRI Global Inc. SRI-Rice website. February. [English translation from French by Edward Baxter.]
- Guindo, Hamidou. 2014. Final Report, Grant to 3A - Sahel from SRI Global Inc. SRI-Rice website. February. [English translation from French by Edward Baxter.]
- 2013. Reaping success in war-torn Mali. Periodicals 3(1): 4 [SRI project in Mali progresses despite war]
- SRI-Rice. 2013. Farmers succeed despite war in Mali. Cornell Chronicle. January 24. [SRI project in Mali increases yields in the war zone.]
- Guindo, Hamidou. 2013. Final report, grant to 3A - Sahel from SRI Global Inc. System of Rice Intensification website. January 1. [English translation from French by Edward Baxter.]
- Rappocciolo, Francesca. 2012. Spreading the System of Rice Intensification across east and southern Africa. IFAD website. November. (22p., pdf)
- Mans, Darius. 2012. Africare thrives in spite of conflict. Africare website. October 16. [no longer online]
- Bagayoko, M. 2012. Effects of plant density, organic matter and nitrogen rates on rice yields in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in the "Office du Niger" in Mali. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7(8): 620-632.
- Cole, David. 2012. More from less: Adopting an innovative rice system in Mali. One website. April 17.
- Africare. 2011. Rapport de synthese altelier sous regional sur le Systeme de Riziculture Intensif (SRI). System of Rice Intensification website. December. [French language report of a sub-regional SRI workshop in Goundam, Timbuktu, that was organized by Africare Mali, Nov. 14-18, 2011. Participants from Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali.]
- Africare. 2011. Africare’s System of Rice Intensification Project (SRI) wins InterAction Best Practice Award. Highbeam research website. May 23.
- InterAction. 2011. InterAction announces BPI award winners. InterAction website. May 4. [Africare receives Best Practice Award for Natural Resources Management and Adaptation to Climate Change]
- Africare. 2011. Our results: The Timbuktu Food Security Initiative. Africare website.
- Dembélé, Douba. 2011. Production de riz à Ségou: L’IICEM introduit de nouveaux matériaux de production. MaliWeb website. March 14. [Source: YEKO]
- USAID. 2011. Regional and bilateral missions bring new rice-growing method to field. USAID West Africa website. March 14. [no longer online]
- Styger, Erika, Goumar Aboubacrine, Malick Attaher, and Norman Uphoff. 2011. The system of rice intensification as a sustainable agricultural innovation: introducing, adapting and scaling up a system of rice intensification practices in the Timbuktu region of Mali. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9:67-75. DOI: 10.3763/ijas.2010.0549 [Note: DOI may not yet be operational]
- Styger, Erika, Malick Ag Attaher, Hamidou Guindo, Harouna Ibrahim, Mahamane Diaty, Ibrahima Abba and Mohamed Traoré. 2011. Application of system of rice intensification practices in the arid environment of the Timbuktu region in Mali. Paddy and Water Environment 9:137-144. doi: 10.1007/s10333-010-0237-z
- Styger, Erika, Malick Ag Attaher, Hamidou Guindo, Harouna Ibrahim, Mahamane Diaty, Ibrahima Abba and Mohamed Traoré. 2010. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) versus farmer practice -- A comparative evaluation in the Timbuktu region of Mali. Presentation at the Second Africa Rice Congress, Bamako, Mali, March 22-26.
- USAID. 2010. First person: Farmer returns to rice. Integrated Initiatives for Economic Growth in Mali (IICEM) website.[no longer online]
- Styger, Erika. 2010. Introducing the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to irrigated systems in Gao, Mopti, Timbuktu and to
rainfed systems in Sikasso - 2009/2010. System of Rice Intensification website. April 10. (33p., 7.3MB pdf) [Report for Abt. Associates on USAID’s Integrated Initiatives for Economic Growth in Mali (IICEM) projects working with rice in the northern regions of Mopti, Timbuktu and Gao in irrigated systems, and in the southern region of Sikasso in rainfed systems.]
- Oxfam/WWF/Africare. 2010. Farmers Leading the Way from Crisis to Resilience Global Farmer Perspectives on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). System of Rice Intensification website. October. [Oxfam/WWF/Africare brochure available as 2p pdf of 4p brochure (626KB) or reconstructed sequential 5p. pdf (1.26MB)]
- Styger, Erika. 2010. Scaling-up the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Goundam and Dire, Timbuktu 2009/2010. System of Rice Intensification website. February 28. (35p., 11.93MB pdf) [Africare initiative funded by Better U Foundation and USAID]
- Styger, Erika and H. Ibrahim. 2009. The System of Wheat Intensification (SWI): Initial test by farmers in Goundam and Dire, Timbuktu, Mali 2009. Timbuktu Food Security Initiative (TFSI), Africare and USAID, Bamako, Mali. System of Rice Intensification website. September 9. (23p., 949 KB pdf)
- Styger, Erika. 2009. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - Community-based evaluation in Goundam and Dire Circles, Timbuktu, Mali, 2008/2009. Africare, Bamako, Mali. System of Rice Intensification website. (35p., 4.02MB pdf)
French version: Système de Riziculture Intensive (SRI) - Évaluation communautaire dans les Cercles de Goundam et de Dire, Tombouctou, Mali, 2008/2009. (50p, 4.04MB pdf)
- 2008. First Experiences from Timbuktu - Mali: Farmer-led SRI test in Goundam - 2007/2008. GFSI Project, Africare, Mali. System of Rice Intensification website. (8p., 4.5MB pdf) [see also French version]
- SRI Timbuktu Website
- Stoop, Willem A. 2003. The System of Rice Intensification from Madagascar: Myth or missed opportunity? System of Rice Intensification website. March 3-15. (16p., 210KB) [Report on a study visit by Willem A. Stoop to the "Hauts Plateaux" region of Madagascar]
Blog and News Articles
- Dolo, Modibo. 2016. Riziculture au Mali: A la croisée des innovations. Bamada.net, October 1. [Science Journalists Network (RJS) itogether with PASSIP brought a dozen journalists to San September 23-24 to meet with farmers using SRI, which is becoming a national benchmark.]
- Keïta, Moïse. 2016. Promotion du Système de Riziculture Intensif (SRI): Le GIZ chez les riziculteurs de la plaine aménagée de San Ouest. BAMADA.net (Mali). September 26. [GIZ with the network of science journalists organized a visit to the rice growers assoication in West San (ARPASO)]
September 26, 2016,
- Coulibaly, M. 2016. Mali: Plaine de San ouest: Le salut par la diversification des cultures de contre-saison, MaliActu.net. April 26.
- WAAPP. 2016. SRI: Giving new life to rice production by closing productivity gap in Mali. West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP) website. April.
- 2015. System of Rice Intensification in Mali. Agroecology Case Studies. Oakland Institute website. November. [Co-published by the Institute and the Alliance for Food Sovereignty in Africa (AFSA).]
- 2015. Atelier National de Coordination et d’échange sur la riziculture : L’USAID s’implique pour la promotion du système riziculture intensif au Mali. MaliJet.com, April 21. [An SRI workshop, held April 17-18 at CICB in Mali] (Mali) [Also available on MaliWeb]
- Styglinger, Matt. 2011. Innovation of the Week: Researchers Find Farmers Applying Rice Innovations to Their Wheat Crops. Nourishing the Plant blog. May 19.
- Hauser, Kelly. 2010. Interview: Malian rice farmer uses SRI to get more from less. One blog. October 22.
- Tangara, Seydou. 2010. Systeme de Riziculture Intensif: Des experts sur le terrain. Primature website (official portal of Mali Government), August 18.
- PASSIP. 2016. Module 15: Système de Riziculture Intensive (SRI). Curriculum d'apprentis sage production et post production du riz. PASSIP website. (22p., 5.3MB pdf) [SRI training material from the Programme d/Appui au Sous-Secteur de l'Irrigation de Proximite (PASSIP), a government irrigation program in Mali carried out in conjunction with GIZ and other donor agencies. [accessed March 2016]
- Styger, Erika, M. A. Attaher, H. Guindo, H. Ibrahim, I. Abba, M. Diaty, M. Traoré and M.S. Mahamar. 2009. Fiche Technique pour le Système de Riziculture Intensive (SRI) à Tombouctou, Mali. Africare, Bamako, Mali. System of Rice Intensification website. (27p., 1.89MB pdf)
- Traoré, Goussou, and Erika Styger. 2015. 1507 - Improving and Scaling Up SRI in West Africa - A Success Story. Presented at the SRI-Rice Seminar Series, Cornell University, September 15, 2015. 32 slides. [uploaded September 9, 2015]
- Demba, Moussa Ag. How SRI has changed the life of a farmer in Timbuktu - A story. Interaction website.12 slides. [Presentation by a farmer from the Timbuktu Food Security Initiative (TFSI), sponsored by Africare-Mali, Bamako]
- Styger, Erika. 2010. Impact of SRI practices in cropping system resilience to fluctuating climate conditions in Timbuktu Region, Mali. Poster presentation at the 3rd International Rice Congress, held in Hanoi, November 2010, in Hanoi, Vietnam.
- Styger, Erika. 2010. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - Producing more rice with less inputs - 3 years of experience from Mali. PowerPoint presentation at the First ECHO West Africa Networking Forum, September 21-23, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. 37 slides.
- Styger, Erika. 2010. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Three years experience in Mali 2007-2009. PowerPoint presentation at the videoconference on Climate Adaptation: Producing More Crops per Drop of Water and with Less Input - Knowledge Sharing on System of Rice Intensification (SRI), February 9. [French version: Système de Riziculture Intensive (SRI) Trois années d’expérience au Mali 2007-2009] 24 slides.
- Styger, Erika. 2009. Community-Based Assessment of SRI in 12 Villages with 60 Farmers in Goundam and Dire, Timbuktu. Africare, Bamako, Mali. 17 slides.
- Additional presentations can be found on the Mali Slideshare Presentation Page.
- 2017 (March 1). Semoir Phillipin. 3:12 min. Khadidia Ba channel. YouTube. [WAAPP/CNRA video on the production/use of the drum seeder video in Mali. French.]
- 2017 (March 1). Riziculture Intensive. 3:04 min. Khadidia Ba channel. YouTube. [WAAPP/CNRA SRI video from Mali. French.]
- 2013 (December 6). Reinforcing food security in Timbuktu. 3:56 min. Abt Associates channel, YouTube. [IICEM, USAID/Mali's cornerstone economic growth program under the U.S. government's Feed the Future initiative, talks about SRI, rice inputs and markets in Timbuktu.]
- 2012. The First West Africa SRI Workshop (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso): Mali (Fr) -Dr Gaoussou Traoré. Produced by SRI-Rice. sricornell channel, YouTube. 4:42 min. [Interview with workshop Leader and coordinator, Dr Gaoussou Traoré, National Center of Specialization for Rice (NCOS Mali)]
- 2012. The First West Africa SRI Workshop (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso): Mali (Fr) - Dr Minamba Bagayoko. Produced by SRI-Rice. sricornell channel, YouTube. 1:26 min. [Interview with Dr. Minamba Bagayoko, Scientist, IER, Niono, Mali]
- 2012. The First West Africa SRI Workshop (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso): Mali (Fr) - Mamadou Sissakom. Produced by SRI-Rice. sricornell channel, YouTube. 3:06 min. [Interview with workshop Mamadou Sissakom, large-scale SRI farmer, Niono, Mali.]
- Harouna, Ibrahim. 2011 (August 8). SRI Timbuktu Song. sricornell channel, YouTube. 10.01 min. [French language song about SRI performed in Goundam, Timbuktu, Mali, by Oumar Malle, Harouna Ibrahim (Africare SRI technician), and Allassane.]
- Hauser, Kelly. 2010 (October 22). Mali Rice Farmer Moussa Ag Demba's Speech on SRI. TheOneCampaign channel, YouTube. 3:00 min. [ONE allies Africare, Oxfam, and World Wildlife Foundation brought three farmers from Mali, Vietnam and India to Washington, DC to speak at the House of Representatives and at the International Trade Center about a style of rice farming that is little-known but rapidly spreading.]
- Photo collections by Erika Styger are available on the SRI Timbuktu Website and the SRI Timbuktu Blog
- Additional photos by Erika Styger and her colleagues in Mali are available in the SRI-Rice photo collection can be seen in the slideshow running in the summary section at the top of the page. If you do not have Flash installed, click here to see individual photos which are made available on Picasaweb. (Also note slideshow feature).